NORA Silver Glossary

NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual

AFUE (Annualized Fuel Utilization Efficiency): A measure of the efficiency of the heating unit (burner and boiler/ furnace) including standby losses during the off-cycles, given on an annual basis. See also “Steady State Efficiency.” Air: A mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and slight traces of other gases. For purposes of combustion analysis, we say air is 79% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen. Air Change: The number of times in an hour the air in a room is changed either by mechanical means or by the infiltration of outside air leaking into the room through cracks around doors and windows, etc. Air Cleaner: A device designed for the purpose of removing airborne impurities such as dust, fumes and smoke. Air Conditioning: This is the process of simultaneously controlling temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution of air to meet various requirements of the conditioned space. Air Infiltration: The leakage of air into a house through cracks and crevices, doors, windows, and other openings, caused by wind, pressure, and/or temperature difference. Alternating Current: In the case of alternating current, electrons are made to move first in one directions and then in the other. The direction of current flow reverses periodically in cycles. Ammeter: An instrument for measuring the amount of electron flow in amperes. Ampere: A measure of current flowing through a conductor having a resistance of 1 ohm and a difference of potential of 1 volt. Aquastat: A term applied to a control which may be inserted in, or attached to, a vessel for the purpose of controlling the temperature of water within the vessel. Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure of the atmosphere at a given elevation, the atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch, allowing water to boil at 212°F. Atomization: The reduction of a substance to minute particles. In oil burning, atomization produces a fine mist of fuel. Available Heat: The quantity of useful heat per unit of fuel available from complete combustion, after deducting dry flue gas and water vapor losses. 00 Customer Service Biofuel: A renewable, biodegradable combustible liquid fuel. Manufactured by processing vegetable oils such as soy and rapseed (canola). Also made from waste cooking oil and trap grease, tallow, and animal fats such as fish oil. Bioheat Fuel®: A blend of 95% or more #2 oil and 5% or less B100 biofuel. Boiler: A closed vessel in which steam is generated or in which water is heated by fire. Boiler Efficiency: The ratio of heat absorbed per pound of fuel fired, to the heat of complete combustion of one pound of fuel. Boiler Heating Surface: The area of the heat transmitting surfaces in contact with the water (or steam) in the boiler on one side, and the fire or hot gases on the other. Boiler Rating: The guaranteed output of a boiler in Btus per hour, or in square feet of radiation, as determined in a test laboratory such as the Institute of Boiler and Radiator Manufacturers (IBR) or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). British Thermal Unit (BTU): The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°F. This is somewhat approximate but sufficiently accurate for any work discussed in this manual. Here is how the Btus of the various fuels compare: No. 2 Heating Oil = 138,690 Btus per gallon Natural Gas: Averages 1,027 Btus per cubic foot, about 135 cubic feet equals one gallon of oil. Kerosene: 131,890 Btus per gallon, 1.05 gallons of kerosene equals the heat content of one gallon of 2 oil. Propane: 91,330 Btus per gallon, 1.53 gallons of propane equals one gallon of 2 oil. Electricity: 3,412 Btus per kilowatt hour (kwh), 40.6 kwh equals one gallon of No. 2 oil. Wood: one full cord of wood has the heat value of between 95 and 140 gallons of oil. Anthracite Coal: has 12,000 Btus per pound. About 12 pounds of coal equals the heat content of one gallon of No. 2 oil. Cad Cell Relay: See “Primary Control.” Carbon Dioxide (CO2): A gas which, in heating practice, indicates the complete combustion of carbon in the fuel and is found through analysis of the flue gas. Glossary VIII—Oilheat Technicians Manual


NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual
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