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NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual

Petroleum comes out of the ground in the form of crude oil and wet gas. Both are a complex mix of compounds consisting mostly of the elements carbon and hydrogen. Sulfur and nitrogen are bound to some of these hydrocarbon compounds. This mixture of molecules is separated at the refinery by distillation into their various boiling ranges. Heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and kerosene are classified as middle distillates because their boiling range is in the middle of the sweep of petroleum products separated in the distillation process. Heating oil produced directly by the distillation process is called “straight run” product. Heating oil is also produced by catalytically and thermally cracking heavier, more complex molecules into the small heating oil hydrocarbon molecules. This is called “cracked” product. Blending Chapter 2 Heating Oil 2-4 Heating Oil and Its Properties Gasoline Heavy Cat- Cracked Gas Oil Sulfur, Nitrogen Hydro Water, etc. Treated Distillate Light Cat- Cracked Gas Oil a mixture of various middle distillate products together also creates heating oil. (Figure 2-1). Properties of heating oil American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ASTM publishes industry specifications for many different materials including petroleum products. The specification for Fuel Oils is ASTM D396. This standard sets the minimum specifications for the fuel. Flash point The flash point of fuel oil is the maximum temperature at which it can be safely stored and handled without serious fire hazard. The ASTM specified flash point Figure 2-1: Refining oil Gases Propane and Burate Naphtha Gasoline Kerosene No. 2 Distillate Heavy Gas Oil Pitch Vacuum Flashing Fractionating Column Crude In Pump Additive Injection Hydro Treater Preheater Hydrogen Gas Catalyst Catalytic Cracker Slurry Oil Residual Fuel


NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual
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