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NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual

Chapter 1 Introduction to Oilburners Chapter 1 Intro to Oil Burners Chapter 1—Introduction to Oil Burners 1-3 Introduction To understand oilburners, we must understand a bit about combustion. Combustion (burning) is the rapid combining of oxygen and the elements in the fuel. When the oxygen and the fuel combine, they create heat, light—and combustion gases. (We cover Combustion Theory in detail in Chapter 7.) In order for something to burn, we need three things: 1. Oxygen from the air 2. A fuel that will easily combine with the oxygen 3. Heat Heating oil will not burn as a liquid. To burn, the liquid oil must be converted into a vapor. In today’s burners, this is done by breaking the oil into tiny droplets (atomizing it). Next, each droplet is heated until it turns into a vapor. Then, to accomplish clean combustion, the oilburner must mix the oil vapor with the proper amount of air. The combined air and vapors are raised to the temperature at which they will burn. Therefore, every oilburner must atomize the oil, vaporize it, mix it with air, and heat the mixture above its ignition point. High pressure atomizing Today’s oilburners are called highpressure burners because they use a fuel pump to pressurize the oil to 100 pounds per square inch (PSI) or more. This pressure forces the oil through a nozzle designed to break (atomize) the oil into the small droplets that are vaporized and burned in suspension in the combustion area. An electric spark, from electrodes installed close to the nozzle, supplies heat for ignition. A fan supplies the air required for combustion. Figure 1-1 shows how a burner operates, Figure 1-2 shows the combustion process. Figure 1-1: Oilburner operation Figure 1-2: Simplified schematic of the combustion process Burner Housing Fuel Line Air Turbulator (Spinner) Air Fan Combustion Air Adjustable Air Damper Combustion Air Atmomization Combustion Air Fuel Storage Recirculation Recirculation Spark


NORA Oilheat Technicians Manual
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